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英杂志评最具影响力科普书:《物种起源》居首
2012年10月08日 新书推荐, 魅力科学 暂无评论 ⁄ 被围观 5,694+


《新科学家》杂志网络版评出迄今为止最具影响力的10本科普图书,达尔文的《物种起源》和霍金的《时间简史》等上榜

北京时间10月3日早间消息,《新科学家》(New scientist)杂志网络版周一评出了迄今为止最具影响力的10本科普图书,达尔文的《物种起源》和霍金的《时间简史》等纷纷上榜。

半个世纪前,生物学家蕾切尔·卡森(Rachel Carson)轰动了整个美国社会。1962年9月27日,她的图书《寂静的春天》(Silent Spring)出版了。该书首次揭露了农药残毒对食物链产生的破坏性危害,引发了社会的激烈讨论。就在出版前的数周,美国总统肯尼迪 (John F. Kennedy) 命令彻查农药问题。肯尼迪当时说,此举还要感谢“卡森女士的书”。

像《寂静的春天》这样对社会产生巨大影响力的图书不在少数,在知名科学家和作者的推荐下,《新科学家》从中选出了25本代表,然后经过投票,最终评出了10部最具影响力的科普图书。

1. 《物种起源》(On the Origin of Species),作者达尔文(Charles Darwin),1859年出版。

《物种起源》是达尔文极具影响力的一本书,被誉为“有史以来最重要的思想”。

2. 《时间简史》(A Brief History of Time),作者史蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking),1988年出版。

《时间简史》应该是世界上关于宇宙学的最经典著作,是一部将高深理论物理通俗化的科普范本。

3. 《自私的基因》(The Selfish Gene),作者理查德·道金斯(Richard Dawkins),1976年出版。

《自私的基因》将进化论推向一个新的高度,,道金斯认为,生物体是基因为了更好的繁殖而和其他基因共同合作而产生的生存机器。

4. 《双螺旋》(The Double Helix),作者詹姆斯·沃森(James Watson),1968年出版。

《双螺旋》讲述的是发现DNA双螺旋结构的故事,首次采用谈话的形式描述进行科学发现的详细过程。

5. 《寂静的春天》(Silent Spring),作者蕾切尔·卡森(Rachel Carson),1962年出版。

《寂静的春天》首次揭露了农药残毒对食物链产生的破坏性危害,引发了社会的激烈讨论。

6. 《裸猿》(The Naked Ape),作者德斯蒙德·莫利斯(Desmond Morris),1967年出版。

《裸猿》是最早将人类描述为动物(没毛的猿)的书籍之一,当时引起了极大轰动。

7. 《混沌》(Chaos),作者詹姆斯·格雷克(James Gleick),1987年出版。

《混沌》是第一本解决混沌理论新兴领域问题的流行科普书籍,帮助人们解决了该领域的诸多问题。

8. 《盖亚》(Gaia),作者詹姆斯·拉夫洛克(James Lovelock),1979年出版。

《盖亚》阐述了盖亚理论,即地球内外的所有物体都是相互联系的。换言之,生命与环境的相互作用之下,能使得地球适合生命持续的生存与发展。

9. 《人口理论概要》(An Essay on the Principle of Population),作者托马斯·马尔萨斯(Thomas Malthus),1798年出版。

《人口理论概要》提醒人们注意人口与生活资料比例协调, 防止人口的过速增长。

10. 《人类的进化》(The Ascent of Man),作者雅各布·布朗劳斯基(Jacob Bronowski),1973年出版。

《人类的进化》阐述了人类的创造性,从最初的使用工具到现代科学。

更多阅读

《新科学家》网站相关报道(英文)

HALF a century ago, biologist Rachel Carson sent shock waves through US society. By the time her book Silent Spring hit the shelves on 27 September 1962, it had already sparked fierce debate. In the weeks before publication, President John F. Kennedy had to field questions about the widespread use of pesticides, an issue he noted had become a central scientific concern - thanks to "Miss Carson's book".

 

As well as bringing scientific ideas to a broader audience, piquing fascination and providing entertainment, popular science writing helps further scientific and social discussion. Carson's book divided opinion, and drove a public conversation that shaped policy and paved the way for the environmental movement.

 

There is a wealth of books with similarly powerful legacies - not written for academic circles, but for anyone curious enough to crack the spine. With the help of eminent scientists and writers we made a shortlist of 25 such popular science books. With close to 4000 votes cast, you helped us whittle it down to the top 10 that helped changed the world.

 

Most influential, according to New Scientist readers, is Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. It marked the foundation of evolutionary biology, but it wasn't just for scientists. From old ladies to philosophers, in the words of Thomas Henry Huxley at the time, "everybody has read Mr Darwin's book".

1

On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin (1859)
Penguin Classics
£9.99/$13
Darwin's hugely influential book, which introduced what Richard Dawkins dubbed "arguably the most important idea ever", was selected by more than 90 per cent of voters.

2

A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking (1988)
Bantam
£8.99/$18
Perhaps the world's best known book on cosmology - by its best known physicist - this modern classic tackles the big questions of the universe.

3

The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins (1976)
Oxford University Press
£8.99/$19.95
Taking evolutionary theory to a new level, Dawkins argued that individual organisms are "survival machines" for the genes that they carry. The book also introduced a now familiar cultural idea: the meme.

4

The Double Helix by James Watson (1968)
Orion
£8.99
An account of the discovery of DNA's double helix by one of the Nobel winners behind the breakthrough.

5

Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962)
Penguin Classics/Houghton Mifflin
£9.99/$14.95
Fifty years on, Carson's exposé of the impact of chemical pesticides continues to have a profound impact.

6

The Naked Ape by Desmond Morris (1967)
Vintage
£7.99
One of the first books to portray humans as the animals that we are, The Naked Ape caused quite a stir when it was first released.

7

Chaos by James Gleick (1987)
Vintage
£10.99
This finalist for the Pulitzer prize was the first popular science book to tackle the emerging field of chaos theory, and helped kick-start the subject across many fields.

8

Gaia by James Lovelock (1979)
Oxford University Press
£8.99/$19.99
Lovelock's book introduced the Gaia hypothesis - that everything on and of the Earth is an interconnected, evolving and self-regulating system.

9

An Essay on the Principle of Population by Thomas Malthus (1798)
Oxford University Press
£8.99/$14.95
This highly controversial work examined the possibility of humans outstripping natural resources.

10

The Ascent of Man by Jacob Bronowski
BBC Books
£9.99
The work celebrates human ingenuity, from the early use of tools to breakthroughs in modern science.



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